More than half of all athletes use sports supplements strategies, while the general population is about 40%. In addition to sensible dietary supplements and “dietary foods for special muscular exertions,” useless products with widely overstated or scientifically completely unsustainable valid promises are common.
Nutrient requirements and nutrient supply
It is undisputed that even a small under-supply with one or more nutrients can lead to impairment of health and performance. A low level of sporting exercise, such as is practiced in the field of health or sports, is associated only with an insignificantly increased demand for micronutrients. This additional demand is met with a similar food selection, and a higher food supply adapted to the increased energy consumption.
Sports and vitamin requirements
Because of their greater energy conversion, some athletes have an increased demand for certain vitamins. This is primarily the case for thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Thus, studies on athletes often show an intake that is recommended under the recommendations and a suboptimal supply of B vitamins using blood parameters, in particular, thiamine and pyridoxine.
The additional use of vitamin C is particularly attractive – not just for athletes. Vitamin C supplementation has increased the performance of people with poor health in a study. However, most studies in normal-fed subjects showed no such effect. However, since vitamin C promotes the absorption of inorganic bound iron, a higher feed can have an advantageous effect on the iron status.
Sports and mineral supplements
Physical activity leads to a welding production of up to 2.5 liters per hour depending on ambient temperature, training condition, type and intensity of the sporting load. Sweat also means that considerable amounts of minerals are lost. It is scarcely known that the excretion of some minerals with the urine is increased after intensive stresses, especially with iron, zinc, and chromium. These factors lead to a partly markedly increased mineral requirement of athletes.
Already wide-range loads with welding losses of about one liter per hour are associated with considerable losses of iron, zinc, and copper. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, and enzymes of the respiratory chain for cellular energy production. A suboptimal supply can, therefore, limit the performance, especially in perennial sports. Zinc is a cofactor of numerous enzymes involved in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Because of the insufficient supply situation, the iodine losses over the perspiration (30 – 40 micrograms per liter) are also to be assessed critically; These are no longer to be balanced with the food in the case of sporting activities, even with the use of iodized food.
Sports Supplements for all the athletes
Since an iron dose of 15 mg per day was already sufficient to treat manifest anemia and no adverse effects are to be expected from this amount, the highly dosed therapy, which can be observed in practice, can lead to considerable side effects uncontrolled, is not always meaningful and necessary.
When it comes to sports supplements strategies overall, the supplementation of magnesium and zinc is seen less critically; many athletes with increased tendency to convulsions benefit from a magnesium delivery despite normal intake with the food. Since, in particular, endurance athletes often supply little zinc with the food and the losses over the perspiration can be considerable, low-dose intake can also be advantageous concerning the role of the element in the immune system.
A performance increase by the absorption of nutrients is to be expected only if a deficiency already exists, which is eliminated by the additional supply. Vitamins or minerals, which are partly found in medicinal products and preparations from abroad, have no performance-enhancing effects and may lead to health damage. It is therefore not recommended to take this medicine.
L-carnitine and creatine typically are not recommended. While no effects can be demonstrated with the additional administration of L-carnitine, a creatine sports supplements are only suitable for sports with endurance benefits, where the effects are also minimal.
Energy-related feeding recommendations
An energy-related intake of vitamin B in high-performance athletes seems sensible. The feed recommendation for thiamine is 0.5 mg per 1000 kcal of converted energy, but many athletes do not achieve this. In the case of riboflavin, the recommended energy conversion is 0.6 mg per 1000 kcal. With a high dietary protein intake, which many athletes realize, the pyridoxine requirement increases. For each gram of protein in the diet, 0.02 mg of pyridoxine should be added. The niacin requirement can also be increased due to the higher metabolic activity, but the recommended to intake sports supplements of 6.7 mg per 1000 kcal is achieved in most cases.